Sugar Accelerates Aging

 

(Also see our material on Sugar Substitutes)

5/31/2011 Just Out

Gigantic Greedy Profiteering Deadly "TV COMMERCIAL" LIES About High-Fructose Corn Syrup

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The American Dietetic Association website says:

 

“Sugars really have no direct relationship to any health problem

except for their role in tooth decay ... eating sweets doesn't stimulate your appetite for more.”

 

These OUTRAGEOUSLY MISLEADING STATEMENTS provide strong motivation to discredit and be skeptical about many other things that many badly-misinformed “professionals” are incorrectly saying about nutrition. Morbid obesity has been increasing steadily since these professionals began recommending high-carbohydrate (sugary-sweet) diets to the masses.

 

The following material is presented in direct confrontational opposition to pseudo-scientific misinformation presented by registered and board-certified professionals, who do our society a great disservice by propagating traditional misinformation about nutrition.

 

“The thinking which created the problem is insufficient to solve it” – Albert Einstein.

 

It is high time that we seriously rethink the way we harm our children’s minds by rewarding them with sugar.

 

 

 

Diabetics with excessive blood sugar levels clearly develop age-related diseases about 30% sooner than the rest of the population. An alarming number of American youngsters are getting “age-onset type II diabetes.” Sugar (in small amounts) does not “cause” diabetes, but consumption of any sugar has a direct and immediate relationship with the level of sugar in the blood.

 

When tissues and organs are overloaded with excess sugar, they get inflamed and age more rapidly. Long-term excess blood sugar can be deadly to non-compliant diabetics who fail to control their intake of all sources of various forms of sugar, ESPECIALLY carbohydrates that are high on the “glycemic index” (which means that they release their sugar through the stomach lining into the blood stream rapidly).

 

 

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Plain and Simple Summary: How much sugar is “too much?” – Are you diabetic or overweight?
If yes, then you probably do NOT need to ever eat liquid or refined sugar (or other foods that are high on the glycemic index).

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If you say: “I know that I shouldn’t do it, but I’m going to (damage my health) anyway” - then you should probably leave this website, since there is no need wasting your time reading scientific facts that can significantly enhance your joy and longevity. You don’t need to waste time fastening your seat belt or doing things to avoid the risk of preventable cancer either (ironic chuckle)

 

BUT, if you are willing to make a few lifestyle changes to become happier and healthier, then PLEASE READ ON.

 

The following material about the many dangers inherent in the consumption of sugar (especially in any liquid or highly refined form) applies to both those with diabetes and to overweight non-diabetics (who are likely to become diabetics).

 

If you are fit and regularly participate in vigorous activities, carbohydrates should be an important part of your diet. You need a significant quantify of glucose to give you the energy required to run a marathon, or build a house, but NOT to sleep or sit around passively in front of a TV with a stomach full of sugar. Complex carbohydrates give you lasting energy (as all good marathon runners must surely understand).

 

The American Dietetic Association website incorrectly says:
Addicted to sugar? Not possible.”

 

An “addiction” is defined as: (1) the compulsive need for, and use of, a habit-forming substance characterized by adverse physiological and emotional symptoms upon withdrawal; (2) persistent compulsive use of any substance known by the user to be harmful.

 

Does excess blood sugar harm diabetics and overweight people? Do you “feel much better” shortly after eating sugar? High glycemic index carbohydrates give you a quick blood sugar spike, which increases damaging inflammation, and then you soon come crashing down, creating emotional depression (and possibly headaches, etc.). Rapid decline in blood sugar produces a strong addictive demand for much more sugar to avoid the physiological and emotional symptoms of sugar withdrawal. You may not understand why, but you habitually reach for candy or sugar water. This can lead to radical personality instability (similar to manic depressive disorder), irritability, obesity and more depression.

 

If a person in authority repeatedly makes false or misleading statements that can have a negative impact on your health or happiness, then question the basis of their authority. Are use a compulsive user of sugar? Do you think it might be doing you harm? – Read on.

 

- - - - - High Glycemic Index Foods Trigger Overeating - - - - -

 

Have you ever wondered why you feel hungry a few hours after eating a big meal? Chances are you ate low-fat carbohydrate-containing foods that caused a rapid spike in your blood sugar. Your body responds by releasing extra insulin into your blood stream. The high insulin makes blood sugar crash back down and suppresses burning fats as well - You get that famished feeling, which leads to overeating.

 

That is what happened in a study of obese teenage boys by researchers at Children's Hospital in Boston and the USDA center in Boston. It's the first solid evidence that carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (those that are rapidly digested and release glucose into the blood stream) contribute to obesity.

 

On three separate days at least a week apart, researchers fed the boys breakfast and lunch having either a high, medium or low glycemic index (GI). The boys ate almost twice as much after the high-GI meals compared to the low-GI fare. The high-GI meals induced a sequence of hormonal and metabolic changes that promoted overeating. http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/103/3/e26:

 

Results: Voluntary energy intake after the high-GI meal (5.8 megajoule [mJ]) was 53% greater than after the medium-GI meal (3.8 mJ), and 81% greater than after the low-GI meal (3.2 mJ). In addition, compared with the low-GI meal, the high-GI meal resulted in higher serum insulin levels, lower plasma glucagon levels, lower postabsorptive plasma glucose and serum fatty acids levels, and elevation in plasma epinephrine. The area under the glycemic response curve for each test meal accounted for 53% of the variance in food intake within subjects.

Conclusions.  The rapid absorption of glucose after consumption of high-GI meals induces a sequence of hormonal and metabolic changes that promote excessive food intake in obese subjects. Additional studies are needed to examine the relationship between dietary GI and long-term body weight regulation. glycemic index, obesity, dietary carbohydrate, diets, insulin.

The prevalence of obesity in the United States is now higher than at any time in recorded history. Approximately 20% of children and >33% of adults are considered to be significantly overweight. However, there remains considerable controversy over the roles of dietary and other modifiable factors in the treatment of this common disorder.

Excessive fat consumption is widely believed to be a major dietary cause of obesity. For this reason, the US Department of Health and Human Services, American Heart Association,7 and American Diabetes Association currently advocate consumption of a low-fat diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Recently, however, the relationship between dietary fat and obesity has been questioned on several grounds including that both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses have failed to show a consistent association between dietary fat and body fat, and that weight loss on low-fat diets is usually modest and transient. In addition, and perhaps of particular significance, mean fat intake in the United States reportedly has decreased over the past 3 decades, from 42% to 34% of dietary energy, whereas the rate of obesity has continued to rise.

Another dietary factor that may influence body weight is the glycemic index (GI). GI is a property of carbohydrate-containing food that describes the rise of blood glucose occurring after a meal. Foods that are rapidly digested and absorbed or transformed metabolically into glucose have a high GI. The GI of a meal is determined primarily by the amount of carbohydrate consumed and by other dietary factors affecting food digestibility, gastrointestinal motility, or insulin secretion (including carbohydrate type, food structure, fiber, protein, and fat). Most starchy foods commonly eaten in North America, chiefly refined grain products and potatoes, have a high GI, exceeding that of even table sugar by up to 50%. By contrast, vegetables, legumes, and some fruits generally have lower GI.

A potential adverse consequence of the decrease observed in mean fat intake in recent years is a concomitant increase in dietary GI. A reduction of dietary fat tends to cause a compensatory increase in sugar and starch intake. Indeed, a rise in total carbohydrate consumption since the 1970s has been documented. Furthermore, because fat slows gastric emptying, carbohydrate absorption from low-fat meals may be accelerated. In view of these observations, it seems likely that the GI of the American diet has risen in recent years. Previously, an inverse relationship between GI and satiety has been shown in several, but not all, single-meal studies. Although these reports suggest a potential influence of GI on short-term energy intake, the practical relevance of GI to energy regulation and obesity remains unclear.

The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that consumption of high-GI foods induces a sequence of hormonal changes that lead to decreased availability of metabolic fuels, excessive hunger, and overeating in obese subjects.

The researchers suspect that their findings apply to the middle-aged and elderly as well. An alarming number of U.S. children and adults are now significantly overweight, following a reduction in fat intake since food labels were required to show fat content, and the 1992 USDA Food Pyramid low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet was recommended.

 

Sugars and starchy foods commonly eaten in North America (refined grain products, potatoes, etc.) have a high GI. Moreover, many of the “low-fat” foods that have flooded grocery shelves since “experts” have been recommending low fat diets are also addictive and high in calories. Some starchy foods have GI's up to 50 percent higher than table sugar. Sources of concentrated sugars, such as fruit juices and sugar water, also have a very high GI. By contrast, healthy vegetables, nuts, legumes and some fruits generally have a low GI.

 

Eating carbohydrate-containing foods, including some fruits, temporarily raises blood sugar and insulin levels. On the other hand, a diet rich in the soluble fiber found in fruit may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes, despite the high carbohydrate content of most fruit. High-fiber food supplements, such as pectin from fruit like apples or grapefruit, have improved glucose tolerance in some studies. Most doctors advise people with diabetes to eat a diet high in fiber. Focus should be placed on high fiber fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, oats, and whole-grain products. Fruit juices with most of their beneficial fiber removed generally have a high GI.

 

Many people find that they become mentally and physically sluggish when their blood sugar level rises following consumption of high GI foods. The majority of brain function is significantly influenced by the level of glucose in the blood. A study published in the January 2005 issue of Diabetes Care documented this effect.

 

Dr. Daniel J. Cox (University of Virginia Health System in Charlottesville) and his colleagues conducted a field study where the team instructed the participants to complete tests assessing verbal and mathematical skills using hand-held computers immediately before monitoring blood glucose, three to four times each day.

 

Many of the subjects made more errors and had slower responses when blood glucose exceeded a certain point. Cox pointed out that to avoid a drop in performance associated with low blood glucose, people often load up on carbohydrates before "cognitively sensitive procedures," such as exams. "But they in fact could being doing themselves a significant disservice," he said, and would perform better by avoiding both high and low extremes of blood glucose levels.

 

High GI foods (like liquid carbohydrates, deserts, bread and potatoes) can measurable reduce intellectual / cognitive brain functions.

  Ethanol From Corn ( Biodeisel ) Is Killing Many Americans with High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)

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Reduction or elimination of sugar and high glycemic index foods are essential elements of Joyful Aging especially for diabetics, overweight and many depressed and sugar-addicted people.

 

The following expensive and time-consuming scientific research into many sugar metabolism and disease issues was for the most part motivated by the millions of people suffering from sugar diabetes complications, and the huge impact that excess blood sugar has on our society and economy, but the findings about excess sugar are important to us all.

 

According to the American Diabetes Association ( http://www.diabetes.org ):

 

There are roughly 17 million people or 6.2% of the U.S. population who have diabetes (and the numbers continue to increase every year).  While an estimated 11 million have been diagnosed, unfortunately, 6 million people are not aware that they have the disease.  Each day, approximately 2,700 people are newly diagnosed with diabetes.  About a million people aged 20 years or older will be diagnosed this year.

 

Diabetes is the fifth deadliest disease in the United States (mistakes made by medical doctors being number three). In 1999, diabetes contributed to well over 200,000 deaths (while the 7/26/2000 Journal of the American Medical Association says that doctor mistakes killed 250,000).  Diabetes is a chronic disease that has no cure. The problem is complicated by misinformation mistakes now being made every day by medical doctors, government agencies and insurance companies.

 

High blood sugar is among the most costly health problems in America. Health care and other costs directly related to diabetes treatment, and the cost of lost productivity, are $98 billion annually.

 

High Blood Sugar is a Silent Long-Term Killer

 

Many people first become aware that their blood sugar levels have been too high for too long when they develop one of its life-threatening complications (some of which are irreversible):

 

Heart Disease is the leading cause of diabetes-related deaths. Adults with high blood sugar have heart disease death rates about 2 to 4 times higher than adults without high blood sugar. Sugar is linked to the build up of deadly body fats.

 

The risk for stroke is 200% to 400% higher among people with high blood sugar. High blood sugar damages and weakens blood vessels throughout the body, leading to MANY degenerative diseases. Excess sugar damages every organ in the body in a variety of different ways.

 

Cholesterol builds up on blood vessel walls damaged by excess blood sugar, in an attempt to seal the many connective tissue cracks and leaks. Cholesterol is NOT the root of the problem – it is the fireman trying to put out the fire (and avoid a devastating stroke).

 

If blood sugar is not brought under control, the vascular damage and the cholesterol accumulation continues. This progressively blocks blood passage, narrowing the blood vessels,  forcing the heart to increase blood pressure, and eventually leading to catastrophic blockage and the death of tissues and organs that have suddenly lost their essential blood supply.

 

This sugar-related disease progression can become noticeable as simple tingling or numbness in the toes or ringing in the ears. Most diabetics are not alarmed by these trivial irritating problems and they fail to change their nutrition and exercise habits. The vascular and nervous system damage continues to progress, accelerating the aging process incrementally over long time, and eventually resulting a massive unrecoverable heart attack, blindness, limb amputation, etc.

 

Scientific Explanation of Sugar-Accelerated Aging: Glycation is the formation of a double-bond between the glucose aldehyde-group and the lysine amino group with the elimination of a water molecule. (Simplification: sugar displaces essential water molecules in proteins – the building blocks of our tissues.)

 

The double-bond between the glucose carbon and the lysine nitrogen is an imine (known as a Schiff base). The imine can quickly re-arrange atoms such that the 2-carbon (2nd carbon) of the glucose loses its two hydrogens, resulting in a carbonyl group (>C=O) and in hydrogen-saturation of the carbon & nitrogen which formerly constituted the imine. This re-arrangement structure is called an Amadori product (a ketoamine). Both glycation and Amadori product formation are completely reversible reactions. But the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) by oxidation of Amadori products is irreversible.

 

AGEs in tissues increase the rate of free radical production to 50-times the rate of free-radical production by unglycated proteins. AGEs attached to bad LDL-cholesterol greatly accelerates oxidation and subsequent atherosclerosis (deadly heart disease). The irreversible cross-linked proteins of AGEs in vessel collagen also contributes to atherosclerosis, as well as to kidney failure - conditions worsened by sugar diabetes [DIABETES 46(Suppl 2):S19-S25 (1997)]. AGEs aggravate protein cross-linking in the plaques a neurofibulary tangles that characterize Alzheimer's Disease, thereby accelerating neuron death [BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEW 23:134-143 (1997)].

 

The higher glycation rate in people with elevated blood sugar is undoubtedly related to the clear fact that diabetes greatly resembles accelerated aging. AGEs are universal symptoms-and-causes of aging - adversely affecting skin, lungs, muscles, blood vessels, brain and all organ functions in general. Increased insulin resistance and other symptoms of diabetes are commonly documented characteristics of aging. Diabetes-like atherosclerosis and the resultant generalized reduction of blood flow to all cells has an extremely adverse effect on most organ systems. (Simplification: HIGH SUGAR KILLS)

 

Although most proteins are short-lived, some proteins, such as crystallins in the eye lens of mammals, can last a lifetime. Lens crystallines, collagen and basement membrane are the proteins most vulnerable to cross-linking and AGE formation, because they are the most long-lived proteins, with a slow rate of replacement. Collagen accounts for about a third of total body protein in mammals. Collagen cross-linking in skin, muscle and organs throughout the body leads to the sinewy, inelastic tissue characteristic of aging.

 

Cross-linking of proteins makes connective tissue lose elasticity, increases arteriosclerosis (since blood vessels are almost entirely connective tissue), reduces kidney function, slows wound healing, reduces the vital capacity of the lung and contributes to cataracts and other diseases of the eye like macular degeneration of the retina, leading to blindness. Glycation also contributes to arteriosclerosis by making LDL-cholesterol unrecognizable to LDL-receptors, thereby increasing LDL in the blood.

 

By age 65, half of Americans have cataracts – a clouding of the lens, which significantly blurs vision. Excess blood sugar in diabetics contributes to this problem, as do years of exposure ultraviolet light (UVB), smoking and a deficiency of antioxidants. The form of sugar called “sorbitol” builds up in the lens creating cataracts. The flavonoid (plant pigment) called “quercetin” is a building block for other beneficial antioxidants. It impedes an enzyme that leads to accumulation of sorbitol in the lens. Quercetin occurs naturally in apples, onions and black tea. As an antioxidant, it also reduces the risk of cancer and heart attack. Quercetin is a mild antihistamine, which helps relieve asthma, hay fever and sinusitis, since it can reduce airway inflammation.

 

Birds have blood glucose levels that are 2-10 times higher, and body temperatures 2ºC-4ºC higher than mammals. Higher temperatures and higher blood glucose would be expected to accelerate glycation and AGE formation in birds, yet their lifespans are considerably longer than those of comparable-sized mammals. High levels of antioxidants in birds result in fewer glucose-derived crosslinks [JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY 54A(4):B171-B176 (1999)].

 

Glucose is not the most active sugar for glycation. Galactose is 5 times more reactive than glucose, fructose is 8 times more reactive (high-fructose corn syrup is one of the very worst commonly-used sweeteners), deoxyglucose is 25 times more reactive, ribose is 100 times more reactive and deoxyribose is 200 times more reactive.

 

Sucrose is composed of the two monosaccharides glucose & fructose, whereas lactose (milk-sugar) is composed of the two monosaccharides glucose and galactose. It is no accident that the least glycating of sugars is the sugar organisms most used by our body for energy. Some aldehydes produced by destructive lipid peroxidation are more reactive than any of the sugars.

 

Not all of the damaging effects of sugar are due to glycation. Glucose and fructose are reduced to sorbitol by the enzyme aldol reductase. Sorbitol is a tissue toxin, contributing to retinopathy, neuropathy, cataracts and kidney disease. And, not all protein cross-linking is due to glycation. Aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation, such as MalonDiAldehyde (MDA, propanedial), can cross-link proteins by forming covalent bonds with lysine amino acids.

 

This helps to explain why sugar accelerates aging and antioxidants help slow down accelerates aging processes caused by excess sugar. Simple scientific Conclusion: reduce intake of high-glycemic-index foods and increase intake of natural antioxidants.

 

By age 65, most humans have at least sub-clinical levels high blood sugar, especially those who are overweight. They may or may not have been diagnosed as “diabetics.” About three out of four adults with even slightly-elevated blood sugar also have high blood pressure (over 130/80 mm Hg) or they use prescription medications for hypertension, which have negative side effects and cascading complications causing many other diseases.

 

High blood sugar is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults 20-74 years old. Diabetic retinopathy (see Scientific Explanation above) causes about 24,000 new cases of blindness each year. In addition, high blood sugar can cause-or-complicate other problems with the retina, optic nerves, optic cortex (and the rest of the central nervous system), due to reduced or blocked blood flow, or micro strokes and hemorrhages). Excess sugar can build up and cloud or change the shape (focal length) or the lens. This may be indicated by the need for frequent changes to eyeglass prescription, or in significant cases, halos around bright lights at night.

 

About 60% to 70% of people with high blood sugar have mild to severe forms of nervous system damage. The results of such damage include impaired sensation, pain and tingling in the feet or hands, blindness, dementia, slowed digestion of food in the stomach, carpal tunnel syndrome, and many other nerve problems.

 

Severe forms of diabetic nerve disease are a major contributing cause of lower-extremity amputations. More than 60% of non-traumatic lower-limb amputations in the United States occur among people with high blood sugar. From 1997 to 1999, about 82,000 non-traumatic lower-limb amputations were performed each year among people with high blood sugar. The number is rapidly increasing as the American obesity epidemic worsens.

 

Kidney overload, frequent urination and dehydration occur when the system tries to purge excess blood sugar. High blood sugar is the leading cause of end-stage kidney (renal) disease, accounting for 43% of new cases. In 1999, 38,160 people with diabetes began treatment for end-stage renal disease. In 1999, a total of 114,478 people with high blood sugar underwent dialysis or kidney transplantation. Organ transplants introduce many other complications, such as the need to disable our essential immune system, to eliminate the risk of foreign organ rejection, which drastically reduces our ability to fight disease naturally and accelerates the aging process.

 

Dental or gum diseases are more common among people with excess blood sugar than among people whose blood sugar is under control. Among young adults, those with diabetes are often at twice the risk of moth disease than those without diabetes. Almost one third of people with high blood sugar have severe periodontal diseases with loss of attachment of the gums to the teeth measuring 5 millimeters or more. This seems to be related to poor blood flow caused by long-term progressive vascular damage.

 

Poorly controlled diabetes before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause major birth defects in 5% to 10% of pregnancies and spontaneous abortions in 15% to 20% of pregnancies. Poorly controlled diabetes during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in excessively large babies, posing a risk to the mother and the child.

 

Uncontrolled diabetes often leads to biochemical imbalances that can cause acute life-threatening events, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar (non-ketotic) coma.

 

People with high blood sugar are more susceptible to many other illnesses and, once they acquire these illnesses, often have a worse prognosis than people without high blood sugar. For example, diabetics are more likely to die with pneumonia or influenza than people with normal blood sugar levels.

 

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People with excess blood sugar can often increase their life expectancy and improve their heath, well-being and quality of life by reducing the intake of simple carbohydrates, which rapidly metabolize into high levels of blood sugar (as measured precisely with serum glucose level blood tests). Any contradictory misinformation from a nutrition professional or medical practitioner should make you think twice about everything else that individual tells you.

 

Taking oral diabetes medications or insulin injections to lower blood sugar (while eating high-glycemic-index sugar) is NOT the proper answer. High serum insulin levels can be produced in response to excess blood sugar when healthy people eat too much of the wrong foods, or in diabetics who inject insulin in response to elevated blood sugar levels. Either way, high levels of insulin have multiple negative effects on the enzymes in the liver that produce cholesterol, and on the kidneys, leading to liver damage, kidney damage and high blood pressure. Taking large quantities of insulin is NOT the way compensate for ingesting mom’s apple pie, any more than drinking coffee is the way to compensate for drinking alcohol.

 

High insulin levels also negatively impact the enzymes in most human cells that regulate inflammation, and thus further accelerate aging and the onset of increasingly-severe diseases. Eventually, the higher the insulin, the HIGHER blood sugar levels rise, because the pancreas produces less (or no) insulin, or cells throughout the body become increasingly resistant to the excess insulin. The body’s inability to adequately compensate for excess blood sugar and excess insulin makes diabetes complications and morbidity to significantly increase.

 

Blood sugar levels are influenced largely by: 1. An individual’s nutrition (carbohydrates, fats, protein, antioxidants, etc), 2. Metabolic rate, 3. Exercise, 4. Body muscle / fat composition, 5. Inherited genetics, 6.  Production (or injection) of insulin, and 7. The body’s ability to react properly to available insulin.

 

The intake of some carbohydrates is necessary for various reasons, but many Americans (especially those who are overweight, have high blood sugar, or high triglycerides) consume far too much carbohydrate, which is known to significantly accelerate aging and the build up of unhealthy excess body fat (a major risk factor for the progression of diabetes).

 

Each person must learn their unique carbohydrate requirement and avoid too much (or too little). If you have been diagnosed with any type of blood-sugar problem (too high, too low or unstable), you need to listen to your doctor and check your blood sugar levels at least once per day with a precision glucometer. This valuable biofeedback will tell you if what you are doing (nutrition, exercise, medication, etc.) is good or bad, so you can quickly learn from daily variations and mistakes. If you ignore high, low or unstable blood sugar for years, you may suffer significant, unnecessary damage.

 

One modern problem is that doctors (who have little or no training in nutrition, and no time to talk with their patients) send their diabetic patients to registered nutrition specialist, who has been trained in obsolete, inaccurate information about carbohydrates (like the extreme misinformation at the top of this material).

 

If we are in an accident that results in a traumatic amputation, we would react quickly, but for people who are consuming far too much carbohydrate, the threat of a future amputation (or many other potential complications or death) does not cause them to significantly change their lifestyle to avoid the high risk of future potential traumatic suffering.

 

Rapid feedback from a precise glucometer, weight scale, etc. can help us live longer and be much happier than if we ignore our intake of excessive carbohydrates. But, we must learn to differentiate good information from the bad, by paying close attention to our weight scales, fitness, body fat level, mood and daily glucometer readings.

 

Each of us is a unique individual. We must study and get to know ourselves and our own bodily metabolism, better than our doctors and dietitians have time (inclination, or the ability) to do.

 

Generally Avoid or Minimize Simple Carbohydrates (unless you are an infant, suffer from low blood sugar, or you are running a marathon). Exceptions: Some sources of simple carbohydrates have both nutritional pros and cons. Such foods include: specific (but not all) fruits, vegetables and milk. The benefits and risks of each particular food should be weighed carefully, depending on each person’s body make up, sensitivities, and hourly consumption requirement for blood sugar (as precisely measured by serum glucose level).

 

If you have been diagnosed with any form of high-or-low blood sugar, it is important that you regularly check your blood sugar with a glucometer - at least once a day or more until you learn which of your behavior modifications work, and which of your lifestyle choices and habits do not. Change one thing at a time and pay attention to your feedback.

 

Several people have told me: “I tried reducing my carbohydrates and I didn’t lose weight.” That is quite possibly true (although many sugar addicts “cheat”). The fallacious conclusion often made by such sugar addicts is: “Since I didn’t lose weight when I reduced my carbohydrates and took a short walk, then its OK for me to sit in front of the TV and eat all of the sugar that I crave so very much.” GAK!

 

Regardless of what other people say, regardless of the partial truths that you tell your friends, quietly pay close attention to your own biofeedback. If you want to lose weight or reduce blood sugar, inflammation, sugar-related diseases and the rate of aging, there are two basic ways: (1) reduce carbohydrates, and (2) increase your exercise.

 

If your biofeedback numbers (weight, blood sugar, body fat, energy, mirror, clothing fit, etc.) are gradually getting better, then you are on the right track – you may plateau for a while, but you’ve learned how to make things incrementally better. Keep on keepin’ on and feel confident of your long-term success.

 

If your biofeedback is bad, further reduce carbohydrates (especially the high-glycemic ones) and increase exercise frequency, duration and intensity (without overdoing what is medically safe for you to do, all things considered). Ultimately YOU must take control of your own health and happiness, which are lifelong study-and-learning processes, with new information coming available every year. Don’t feel guilty. Don’t get stressed out.

 

Don’t let the transient manic / depressive feelings of sugar addiction overcome your intellect and rational thinking. You know what ultimately must be done. You know the long-term consequences for failure to listen to what your biofeedback is trying to tell you. Sometimes, addicts have to crash to the bottom before they are willing to take back control of their lives and set their biofeedback progression in the correct direction with significant behavior modification. (See Changing Mental Images) I hope your intellect will save you such pain (if you are currently addicted to harmful bad habits and you know that you are out of control). There are many sources of assistance and support. If you like, we invite you to write us and we will offer what we can (without trying to diagnose any disease or prescribe any specific medical or mental treatment): JoyfulAging@AOL.com

 

Simple Carbohydrate Sources

Sucrose - Table sugar, brown sugar, confectioners sugar, raw sugar and turbinado

Glucose - Dextrose, corn syrup and glucose syrup or tablets

Fructose – Honey, fruits and vegetables (See material on specific fruits and vegetables)

High fructose corn syrup is a liquid sweetener that contains 42-90 percent fructose

Honey is made up of glucose, fructose and water

Alcohol Sugars - Sorbitol, mannitol, xybitol

Lactose - Milk products (See our material on Milk)

Maltose, Dextrose – Cereals, flour and many baked goods

 

Read The Nutrition Facts Label, which shows content of sugars from all sources (naturally occurring sugars plus added sugars). You can use this to compare the amount of total sugars among similar products.

 

To find out if sugars have been added, you also need to look at the food label ingredient list. A food is likely to be high in sugars if one of these names appears as one of the first few ingredients, OR if multiple of these items are listed as ingredients (even if not first in the list): brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, fruit juice, glucose,  high-fructose corn syrup, honey  invert sugar, lactose, malt syrup, maltose, mannitol, molasses, raw sugar, sorbitol, sucrose, syrup, table sugar, turbinado or xybitol. Ingredients like flour and processed cereals quickly metabolize into high blood sugar levels.

 

The glycemic index of a food depends on many factors including harvest time, gene species, cooking methods, age of food, type of processing, protein and fat content, fiber content, nutritional profile, and many other variables. Different studies of the same food have resulted in glycemic variations ranging from 20-40 points.

 

Furthermore, the human variable has to be taken into account. Glycemic index variations occur in the average person based on age, time of day, activity, etc. Diabetics react differently than non-diabetics. These variables can change the glycemic response to a food or meal by as much as 100 percent. This means that the same person can have different blood sugar responses to the same food at different times on different days. Glycemic Index absolute numbers are therefore difficult to understand – It is not like counting calories. What matters is the relative position on the Glycemic Index.

 

 

Worst GI

Glucose Tablets Or Liquid

Maltodextrin

Dates

Parsnips

Rice Pasta

Instant Rice

Breakfast Cereals

Plain Baked Potato

Tapioca

Jelly Beans

Cookies and Cakes

Rice Cakes

Waffles, Pancakes

Candy Bar

Donut

French Fried Potatoes

Corn Chips

Pumpkin

Bread Stuffing

Watermelon

Dried Beans

Banana

Soft Drink

Alcohol Beverage (Sweet)

Pineapple

Green Pea Soup

Black Bean Soup

Sucrose

Apricots

Raisins

Beets

High Fructose Corn Syrup

Ice Cream

Cheese Pizza

Honey

Mango

Fruit Cocktail

Popcorn

Sweet Corn

Durum Wheat Spaghetti

Sweet Potato

Potato Chips

Kiwifruit

Orange Juice

Green Lentils

Grapefruit Juice

Baked Beans, Canned

Green Peas

Grapes

Pineapple Juice

Pinto Beans

Carrot Juice

Orange

Pear

Lentil Soup

Chick Peas

Black-Eyed Peas

Apple Juice

Hominy Corn

Carrots

Plum

Navy Beans

Tomato Soup

Apple

Brown Beans

Yogurt

Lima Beans Broth

Milk, Chocolate

Kidney Beans

Milk, Skim

Dried Apricots

Butter Beans

Soy Milk

Black Beans

Whole Milk, 4% Fat

Grapefruit

Cherries

Fructose

Peanuts

Soy Beans

Better GI

 

 

Complex Carbohydrates are normally (somewhat) better than simple carbohydrates, but overweight people and people with high blood sugar or high triglycerides should probably limit carbohydrate consumption to small amounts in the morning, or moderate amounts just before heavy muscular activity. The fruits and vegetables that also provide essential vitamins, antioxidants, etc. are usually the best choice (for breakfast or lunch).

 

If you are NOT running a marathon, you should probably avoid most carbohydrates for hours before resting, sleeping or sitting for long periods at work, in front of a television, the Internet, etc. The obvious exception is people with abnormally low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

 

If (when) your blood sugar level climbs above your current requirement for various bodily functions, high-blood-sugar damage is being done everywhere that blood flows. This damage is often incrementally cumulative over long periods of time. Some high-blood-sugar-caused damage (such as diabetic neuropathy, i.e., “nerve death”) is normally permanent and irreversible (neurons do not increase in numbers, as do muscle cells, etc).

 

The higher your serum glucose level, the longer it has been high, the worse the cumulative damage that sugar causes throughout your bodily tissues and organs.

 

Apart from a few notable exceptions, most simple carbohydrates (like sugar and especially sweet liquids) should be avoided by many people most of the time. Some fruits and vegetables (which have both simple and complex carbohydrates, essential nutrients, vitamins, antioxidants, etc.) should be eaten in moderation, at times when glucose (muscle and brain fuel) requirement will be high (but NOT just before sedentary inactivity, resting or sleep).

 

If you cannot relax without a large serving of sugar, or if you get depressed if you haven’t had some sugar in the last few hours, then you are probably badly addicted to sugar and you need behavior modification rehabilitation therapy (as do all addicts). If you can’t correct your bad habits with your own intellect and will power by yourself, then seek nearby professional assistance or a support group, (but be careful about becoming a dependent personality, addicted to endless therapy).

 

Hopefully, you will be able to study material, such as the references provided by JoyfulAging.com and do what is necessary on your own to change life-long bad habits. If you ever say: “I know I shouldn’t eat this, but I’m going to (do damage to myself) anyway”, you need behavior modification therapy before more serious damage becomes irreversible. Simply adjusting your value system to believe that “fat is beautiful” is NOT the correct answer. Have you ever seen any very fat older people? Morbid obesity kills people before they get old. Excess fat and high blood sugar greatly accelerate aging.

 

Complex Carbohydrates release their sugars more slowly than simple carbohydrates (although specific complex carbs vary widely on the rate of sugar release. (Comprehensive Glycemic Index).

 

One important nutrition goal is to maintain stable, slowly-varying serum glucose levels. The amount and type of carbohydrates ingested should match your body’s hourly demand for blood sugar. If you are gaining weight, clearly you are consuming way too much carbohydrate that metabolizes into sugar.

 

Complex Carbohydrate Sources

Insoluble Fiber - Wheat bran, cabbage, beets, carrots, brussel sprouts, turnips, cauliflower and apple skin (pectin)

Soluble Fiber -: oat bran, oats, legumes (beans), citrus fruits, strawberries, apple pulp, psyllium, rice bran and barley

Starches - Flour, bread, rice, corn, oats, barley, potatoes, carrots, corn, legumes, fruits and vegetables.

 

Many starches (like white flour, rice and potatoes) are high on the glycemic Index, and should be avoided or limited by diabetics, inactive and overweight people.

 

Fibrous carbohydrates are digested slowly, which can lead to increased levels of stomach gas and “bloating” in an otherwise healthy diet. Many adults (perhaps 30%) do not produce or store sufficient enzymes to digest certain foods (for example, lactose intolerance, etc.). Enzyme supplementation can help ease this unpleasant problem (and improve social harmony). Many antioxidants are also enzymes.

 

According to the American Heart Association ( http://www.americanheart.org ):

 

“Substituting carbohydrates for fats may increase (negative) triglyceride levels in some people. It also may lower HDL (the good kind of essential) cholesterol.”

 

High triglycerides (hypertriglyceridema) are bad. HDL’s are the “good” form of cholesterol that help reduce excess cholesterol build up and high blood pressure. Thus, substituting excessive carbohydrates for fats can increase the risk of heart disease and other problems in many people.

 

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The following extensive sugar research summary is presented in an attempt to clearly communicate the many serious health problems that have been directly linked to sugar through scientific research. This list is not complete or comprehensive. It is not an attempt to diagnose or treat any particular disease. See a qualified specialist if you have any personal questions. If you receive contradictor information (as often happens), seek input from multiple sources and pay close attention to your personal biofeedback.

 

We hope that this valuable information will lead your to superior self-control Joyful Aging behavior modifications - Live Long and Be Happy.

 

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Overwhelming Reasons Why Sugar Can Ruin Your Health

By Dr. Nancy Appleton.- Author, lecturer, researcher and nutritional consultant. Her interesting publications include LICK THE SUGAR HABIT, HEALTHY BONES, HEAL YOURSELF WITH NATURAL FOODS, BALANCED BODY SECRETS, and 21 HEALING DAYS. (See the scientific research References below)

 

Quick Summary:

1.       Sugar can suppress the immune system and slow down prevention and healing processes.

2.       Sugar upsets the body’s mineral balance.

3.       Sugar can cause hyperactivity, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and crankiness in children.

4.       Sugar can significantly increase triglycerides (heart disease, high blood pressure and stroke).

5.       Sugar contributes to a reduction in bacterial infection defense.

6.       Sugar causes a loss of tissue elasticity and function, the more sugar you eat the more elasticity and function you loose (wrinkled, weathered old skin).

7.       Sugar reduces high-density lipoproteins (good cholesterol that fights heart disease).

8.       Sugar leads to chromium deficiency (poor blood sugar control).

9.       Sugar leads to cancer of the breast, ovaries, prostrate and rectum.

10. Sugar can increase fasting levels of glucose.

11. Sugar causes copper deficiency.

12. Sugar interferes with absorption of calcium and magnesium.

13. Sugar can weaken eyesight.

14. Sugar raises the level of a neurotransmitters, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

15. Sugar can cause hypoglycemia.

16. Sugar can produce an acidic digestive track, which impairs digestion and metabolism.

17. Sugar can cause a rapid rise of adrenaline levels in children (combative behavior).

18. Sugar malabsorption is frequent in patients with functional bowel disease.

19. Sugar can accelerate aging (through many different complex cascading processes).

20. Sugar can lead to alcoholism.

21. Sugar can cause tooth decay.

22. Sugar contributes to morbid obesity.

23. High intake of sugar increases the risk of Crohn's (inflammatory bowel) Disease, and ulcerative colitis.

24. Sugar can cause changes frequently found in persons with gastric or duodenal ulcers.

25. Sugar can cause arthritis.

26. Sugar can cause asthma.

27. Sugar can cause Candida Albicans (yeast infections)

28. Sugar can cause gallstones.

29. Sugar can cause ischemic heart disease and neuropathy (damage to small capillaries).

30. Sugar can cause appendicitis.

31. Sugar can cause multiple sclerosis and exacerbate its symptoms.

32. Sugar can cause hemorrhoids.

33. Sugar can cause varicose veins.

34. Sugar can elevate glucose and insulin responses in oral contraceptive users.

35. Sugar can lead to periodontal disease.

36. Sugar can contribute to osteoporosis.

37. Sugar contributes to saliva acidity.

38. Sugar can cause a decrease in insulin sensitivity (glucose overload).

39. Sugar leads to decreased glucose tolerance.

40. Sugar can decrease growth hormone.

41. Sugar can increase cholesterol (which is linked to heart disease, high blood pressure and stroke).

42. Sugar can increase systolic blood pressure.

43. Sugar can cause drowsiness and decreased activity in children.

44. Sugar can cause migraine headaches.

45. Sugar can interfere with the absorption of protein.

46. Sugar causes food allergies.

47. Sugar can contribute to diabetes and diabetic complications.

48. Sugar can cause toxemia during pregnancy.

49. Sugar can contribute to eczema in children.

50. Sugar can cause cardiovascular disease.

51. Sugar can impair the structure of DNA (cancer causing genetic mutations).

52. Sugar can change the structure of protein.

53. Sugar can make our skin age by changing the structure of collagen.

54. Sugar can cause cataracts.

55. Sugar can cause emphysema.

56. Sugar can cause atherosclerosis.

57. Sugar can promote an elevation of low-density proteins (LDL – the “bad” cholesterol).

58. Sugar can cause free radicals in the blood stream.

59. Sugar lowers enzymes’ ability to function.

60. Sugar can cause a permanent altering of the way the proteins act in the body.

61. Sugar can increase the size of the liver by making the liver cells divide.

62. Sugar can increase the amount of liver and body fat.

63. Sugar can increase kidney size and produce pathological changes in the kidney.

64. Sugar can damage the pancreas (leading to diabetes).

65. Sugar can increase the body's fluid retention.

66. Sugar is enemy #1 of the bowel movement.

67. Sugar can cause myopia (nearsightedness) by building up in the lens.

68. Sugar can compromise the lining of the small capillaries.

69. Sugar can make the make the tendons more brittle.

70. Sugar can cause headaches.

71. Sugar can over-stress the pancreas.

72. Sugar can adversely affect school children's grades.

73. Sugar can cause an increase in delta, alpha and theta brain waves.

74. Sugar can cause depression.

75. Sugar increases the risk of gastric cancer.

76. Sugar and cause dyspepsia (indigestion).

77. Sugar can increase your risk of getting gout (which may be an early warning sign of diabetes).

78. The ingestion of sugar can increase the levels of glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test compared to the ingestion of complex carbohydrates.

79. Sugar can increase insulin responses in humans consuming high-sugar diets compared to low sugar diets.

80. Sugar increases bacterial fermentation in the colon (causing damage to the liver and central nervous system and increasing the risk of breast cancer).

81. Sugar can cause less effective functioning of two blood proteins (albumin and lipoproteins), which may reduce the body’s ability to handle fat and cholesterol.

82. Sugar can cause platelet adhesiveness (clotting and vascular blockage).

83. Sugar can cause hormonal imbalance.

84. Sugar can lead to the formation of kidney stones.

85. Sugar can lead the hypothalamus to become highly sensitive to a large variety of stimuli.

86. Sugar can lead to dizziness.

87. High sugar diet significantly increases serum insulin and body fat storage.

88. High sugar diets of subjects with peripheral vascular disease significantly increases platelet adhesion.

89. High sugar diet can lead to biliary tract cancer.

90. High sugar diets tend to be lower in antioxidant micronutrients (thus accelerating aging processes).

91. High sugar consumption of pregnant adolescents is associated with a twofold-increased risk for delivering a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant.

92. High sugar consumption can lead to substantial decrease in gestation duration among adolescents with high sugar diets.

93.  Sugar slows food's travel time through the gastrointestinal tract. Sugar can cause a raw, inflamed intestinal tract in persons with gastric or duodenal ulcers. An increase in blood sugar can cause a rapid increase in inflammation throughout the entire body. Inflammation is the cause or result of many diseases, and is linked to accelerated aging.

94. Sugar increases the concentration of bile acids in stools and bacterial enzymes in the colon. This can modify bile to produce cancer-causing compounds and colon cancer.

95. Sugar combines and destroys phosphatase, an enzyme, which makes the process of digestion more difficult.

96. Sugar can be a risk factor for gallbladder cancer.

97. Sugar is an addictive substance. (Sugar substitutes can increase sugar desire).

98. Sugar can be intoxicating, similar to alcohol.

99. Sugar can exacerbate PMS.

100.                         Sugar suppresses immune system lymphocytes.

101.                         Rapid rise and fall of blood sugar level can decrease emotional stability.

102.                         The body changes sugar into 2 to 5 times more fat in the bloodstream than it does complex carbohydrates.

103.                         The rapid absorption of glucose promotes excessive food intake in obese subjects.

104.                         Sugar can worsen the symptoms of children with attention deficit disorder (ADD).

105.                         Sugar adversely affects urinary electrolyte composition.

106.                         Sugar can slow down the ability of the adrenal glands to function.

107.                         Sugar has the potential of inducing abnormal metabolic processes in a normal healthy individual and to promote chronic degenerative diseases.

108.                         High sugar intake could be an important risk factor in lung carcinogenesis.

109.                         Sugar increases the risk of polio.

110.                         High sugar intake can trigger epileptic seizures.

111.                         Intensive Care Units: Sugar limit saves lives.

112.                         Sugar feeds cancer cells.

113.                         Sugar causes high blood pressure in obese people.

114.                         Intravenous feeding of sugar water can reduce oxygen supply to the brain.

115.                         Sugar increases estradiol (the most potent form of naturally occurring estrogen) in men.

116.                         Sugar can lower the amount of Vitamin E in the blood.

117.                         Sugar can increase harmful free radicals in the blood stream.

118.                         Sugar can contribute to Alzheimer's disease (nerve death).

119.                         Sugar given to premature babies often produces high blood sugar, causing them to lose precious sugar, water and salts through the urine, putting them at risk for dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.

120.                         Sugar given to premature babies can affect the amount of carbon dioxide that they produce, exacerbating problems for those with lung disorders.

121.                         High sugar diets are linked to violence in prisoners.

References:

1.       Sanchez, A., et al. "Role of Sugars in Human Neutrophilic Phagocytosis", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 26l (November 1973): 1180-1184.

2.       Couzy, F., et al. "Nutritional Implications of the Interaction Minerals," PROGRESSIVE FOOD AND NUTRITION SCIENCE 17 (1933): 65-87.

3.       Goldman, J., et al. "Behavioral Effects of Sucrose on Preschool Children," JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, 14, No.4 (1986): 565-577.

4.       Scanto, S. and Yudkin, J. "The Effect of Dietary Sucrose on Blood Lipids, Serum Insulin, Platelet Adhesiveness and Body Weight in Human Volunteers," POSTGRADUATE MEDICINEJOURNAL 45 (1969): 602-607.

5.       Ringsdorf, W., Cheraskin, E. and Ramsay R. "Sucrose Neutrophilic Phagocytosis and Resistance to Disease," DENTAL SURVEY, 52, No. 12 (1976): 46-48.

6.       Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., and Brownlee, M."Glucose and Aging," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN (May 1987): 90.

7.       Albrink, M. and Ullrich I. H. "Interaction of Dietary Sucrose and Fiber on Serum Lipids in Healthy Young Men Fed High Carbohydrate Diets," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 43 (1986): 419-428. Pamplona, R., et al. "Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis," 46 (1993), 174-181.

8.       Kozlovsky, A., et al. "Effects of Diets High in Simple Sugars on Urinary Chromium Losses." METABOLISM 35 (June 1986): 515-518.

9.       Takahashi, E., Tohoku University School of Medicine, WHOLISTIC HEALTH DIGEST (October 1982) 41.

10. Kelsay, J., et al. "Diets High in Glucose or Sucrose and Young Women," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 27 (1974): 926-936.

11. Fields, M., et al. "Effect of Copper Deficiency on Metabolism and Mortality in Rats Fed Sucrose or Starch Diets," JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 113 (1983): 1335-1345.

12. Lemann, J. "Evidence that Glucose Ingestion Inhibits Net Renal Tubular Reabsorption of Calcium and Magnesium," JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 70 (1967): 236-245.

13. Taub, H. Ed. "Sugar Weakens Eyesight," VM NEWSLETTER 5 (May, 1986).

14. "Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response, "THE ADDICTION LETTER (July 1992): 4.

15. Dufty, William. SUGAR BLUES. New York: Warner Books, 1975. .

16. Jones, T. W., et al. "Enhanced Adrenomedullary Response and Increased Susceptibility to Neuroglygopenia: Mechanisms Underlying the Adverse Effect of Sugar Ingestion on Children," JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS 126 (2) (Feb. 1995): 171-7. .

17. Lee, A. T. and Cerami A. "The Role of Glycation in Aging,"ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 663 (1992): 63-70.

18. Abrahamson, E. and Peget A. BODY, MIND AND SUGAR. New York: Avon, 1977.

19. Glinsmann, W., Irausquin, H., and Youngmee, K. EVALUATION OF HEALTH ASPECTS OF SUGAR CONTAINED IN CARBOHYDRATE SWEETENERS. F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force. (1986): 39. Makinen K.K.,et al. "A Descriptive Report of the Effects of a16-month Xylitol Chewing-gum Programme Subsequent to a40-month Sucrose Gum Programme," CARIES RESEARCH32(2):107-12 1998.

20. Keen, H., et al. "Nutrient Intake, Adiposity, and Diabetes, "BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 1 (1989):655-658.

21. Yudkin, J. SWEET AND DANGEROUS. New York: Bantam Books, 24.

22. Darlington, L., Ramsey, N. W. and Mansfield, J. R. "Placebo-Controlled, Blind Study of Dietary ManipulationTherapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis," LANCET 1: 8475(Feb. 1,1986):236-238.

23. Powers, L. "Sensitivity: You React to What You Eat." LOS ANGELES TIMES (Feb. 12, 1985).

24. Crook, W. THE YEAST CONNECTION. Jackson, TN: Professional Books, 1984.

25. Heaton, K. "The Sweet Road to Gallstones," BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 288 (April 14, 1984): 1103-4. Misciagna, G., et al. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 69((1999): 120-126.

26. Yudkin, J. "Dietary Fat and Dietary Sugar in Relation to Ischemic Heart Disease and Diabetes," LANCET 2: No.4Suadicani, P., et al. "Adverse Effects of Risk of Ishaemic Heart Disease of Adding Sugar to Hot Beverages In Hypertensives Using Diuretics," Blood Pressure 5 No. 2 (Mar1996): 91-71.

27. Cleave, T. THE SACCHARINE DISEASE. New Canaan, CT: KeatsPublishing,1974.

28. Erlander, S. "The Cause and Cure of Multiple Sclerosis," THEDISEASE TO END DISEASE, 1, No.3 (March 3, 1979): 59-6332. Cleave, T. THE SACCHARINE DISEASE. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing,1974.

29. Cleave, T. and Campbell, G. DIABETES, CORONARY THROMBOSIS AND THE SACCHARINE DISEASE. Bristol, England: John Wrigh and Sons, 1960.

30. Behall, K. "Influence of Estrogen Content of Oral Contraceptives and Consumption of Sucrose on Blood Parameters," DISEASE ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL B. 43 (1982):1437.

31. Glinsmann, W., Irausquin, H., and K. Youngmee. EVALUATION OF HEALTH ASPECTS OF SUGAR CONTAINED IN CARBOHYDRATE SWEETENERS. F. D. A. Report of Sugars Task Force. (1986) 39. 36-38.

32. Tjäderhane, L. and Larmas , M. "A High Sucrose Diet Decreases the Mechanical Strength of Bones in Growing Rats," Journal of Nurition 128 (1998): 1807-1810.

33. Appleton, N. HEALTHY BONES. Garden City Park, New York:Avery Publishing, 1989; 19.

34. Beck-Nielsen H., Pedersen O., and Schwartz S. "Effects of Diet on the Cellular Insulin binding and the
Insulin Sensitivity in Young Healthy Subjects," DIABETES. 15(1978): 289-296 .

35. Thomas, B. J., et al. "Relation of Habitual Diet to Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentration and the Insulin Response to OralGlucose," Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition 36C No.1 (1982): 49-51.

36. Gardner, L., and Reiser, S. "EffectsDietary Carbohydrateon Fasting Levels of Human Growth Hormone and Cortisol,"PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY ANDMEDICINE 169 (1982): 36-40.

37. Reiser, S. "Effects of Dietary Sugars on Metabolic Risk Factors Associated with Heart Disease," NUTRITIONAL HEALTH 3 (1985): 203-216.

38. Hodges, R., and Rebello, T. "Carbohydrates and Blood Pressure," ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE 98 (1983): 838-841.

39. Behar, D, et al. "Sugar Challenge Testing with Children Considered Behaviorally Sugar Reactive," NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIOR1(1984): 277-288.

40. Grand, E. "Food Allergies and Migraine," LANCET, 1 (1979):955-959

41. Simmons, J. "Is The Sand of Time Sugar?" LONGEVITY. (June1990): 49-53.

42. Appleton, Nancy. LICK THE SUGAR HABIT. Garden City Park, New York: Avery Publishing Group, 1988.

43. "Sucrose Induces Diabetes in Cat," FEDERAL PROTOCOL 6, No.97 (1974).

44. Cleave, T. The SACCHARINE DISEASE. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1974: p. 131, 132.

45. Vaccaro O, Ruth K. J., Stamler J. "Relationship of PostloadPlasma Glucose to Mortality with 19-yr Follow-up." Diabetes Care10 (Oct.15 1992):1328-34. Tominaga, M.., et al, "Impaired Glucose Tolerance Is a Risk Factorfor Cardiovascular Disease, but Not Fasting Glucose,"Diabetes Care 22 No. 6 (1999): 920-924.

46. Lee, A. T. and Cerami, A. "Modifications of Proteins and Nucleic Acids by Reducing Sugars: Possible Role in Aging," HANDBOOK OF THE BIOLOGY OF AGING. New York: Academic Press, 1990.

47. Monnier, V. M. "Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process," JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGY, 454(1990): 105-110.

48. Dyer, D. G., et al. "Accumulation of Maillard Reaction Products in Skin Collagen in Diabetes and Aging," JOURNAL OFCLINICAL INVESTIGATION 91 no. 6 (June 1993): 421-22.

49. Rattan, S. I., et al. "Protein Synthesis, Post-translational Modifications, and Aging." ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OFSCIENCES 663 (1992): 48-62.

50. Monnier, V. M. "Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process," JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGY, 454(1990): 105-110.

51. Pamplona, R., et al. "Mechanisms of Glycation in Atherogenesis," MEDICAL HYPOTHESES 40 (1990): 174-181.

52. . Appleton, Nancy. LICK THE SUGAR HABIT Garden City Park, New York, Avery Publishing Group (1988).

53. Lee, A. T. and Cerami, A. "The Role of Glycation inAging," ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 663: 63.

54. Cerami, A., Vlassara, H., and Brownlee, M."Glucose and Aging," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN (May 1987): 90.

55. Goulart, F. S. "Are You Sugar Smart?" AMERICAN FITNESS(March-April 1991): 34-38.

56. Yudkin, J., Kang, S. and Bruckdorfer, K. "Effects of High Dietary Sugar," BRITISH JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 281 (November22,1980):1396.

57. Goulart, F. S. "Are You Sugar Smart?" AMERICAN FITNESS(March-April 1991): 34-38. 

58. Nash, J. "Health Contenders," ESSENCE 23 (January 1992) 79-81. As told by Elsie Morris, M.D., of Atlanta, a specialist in allergy and immunology.

59. Greenberg, Kurt. Interviewed John P. Trowbridge, M.D., "An Update on the Yeast Connection," HEALTH NEWS AND REVIEW(Spring, 1990) 10.

60. Goulart F. S. "Are You Sugar Smart?" AMERICANFITNESS (March-April 1991): 34-38.

61. Schauss, A. DIET, CRIME AND DELINQUENCY. Berkeley CA: Parker House, 1981.

62. Christensen, L. "The Role of Caffeine and Sugar in Depression," THE NUTRITION REPORT 9 NO. 3 (March 1991): 17,24.

63. Cornee, J., et al., "A Case-control Study of Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Factors in Marseille, France," EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 11, (1995): 55-65.

64. Yudkin, J. SWEET AND DANGEROUS. New York: Bantam Books,(1974): 129.

65. Reiser, S., et al. Effects of Sugars on Indices on Glucose Tolerance in Humans, "AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 43(1986): 151-159.

66. Reiser,S., et al. "Effects of Sugars on Indices on GlucoseTolerance in Humans," AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 43(1986): 151-159.

67. Kruis, W., et al. "Effects of Diets Low and High in RefinedSugars on Gut Transit, Bile Acid Metabolism and Bacterial Fermentation," GUT 32 (1991): 367-370.

68. Monnier, V., "Nonenzymatic Glycosylation, the Maillard Reaction and the Aging Process," Journal of Gerontology 45 No. 4(1990) B105-111.

69. Persson P. G., Ahlbom, A., and Hellers, G. EPIDEMIOLOGY 3No.1 (1992): 47-52.

70. Yudkin, J. "Metabolic Changes Induced by Sugar in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes," NUTRITION AND HEALTH 5,No. 1-2 (1987): 5-8.

71. Blacklock, N. J., "Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone, "Curhan, G., et al. "Beverage Use and Risk for kidney Stones in Women," ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 1998, 128: 534-340.

72. JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MEDICINE, 1994 7 No.1: 51-58. 

73. POSTGRADUATE MEDICINE ,Sept 1969: 45 No. 527:602-07.

74. Moerman, C. J., et al. "Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiology ofBiliary Tract Cancer," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 22 No.2(April 1993):207-214.

75. Lenders, C. M., "Gestational Age and Infant Size at BirthAre Associated with Dietary Intake Among Pregnant Adolescents," JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 127 (June 1997): 1113-1117.

76. R. M. Bostick,R. M., et al. "Sugar, Meat and Fat Intake, andNon-Dietary risk factors for Colon Cancer Incidence in Iowa Women." CANCER CAUSES CONTROL, 5 (1994): 38-53.

77. Ludwig, D. S., et al. "High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeatingand Obesity," PEDIATRICS 103 No.3 (March 1999): 26-32.

78. Hallfrisch, J., et al. "Effects of Dietary Fructose onPlasma Glucose and Hormone Responses in Normal andHyperinsulinemic Men," Journal of Nutrition 113 No.9 (Sept.1983): 1819-1826.

79. Lee, A. T. and Cerami A. "The Role of Glycation in Aging,"ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 663 (1992): 63-70.

80. Moerman, C., et al."Dietary Sugar Intake in the Etiologyof Biliary Tract Cancer," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OFEPIDEMIOLOGY 22 No. 2 (April 1993):207-214.

81. Sugar, White Flour Withdrawal Produces Chemical Response,"THE ADDICTION LETTER (July 1992):4.

82. THE EDELL HEALTH LETTER 10 No.7 (Sept 1991)1.

83. Bernstein, J., et al. "Depression of LymphosyteTransformation Following Oral Glucose Ingestion." AMERICANJOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 30(1977): 613.

84. Christensen L, Krietsch K, White B and Stagner B. "Impact ofa Dietary Change on Emotional Distress," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 94 No.4 (1985):565-79.

85. NUTRITION HEALTH REVIEW, Fall 85.

86. Ludwig, D. S., et al. "High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating and Obesity," PEDIATRICS 103 No.3 (March 1999): 26-32.

87. PEDIATRICS RESEARCH 38, 4, (1995): 539-542.

88. Blacklock, N. J. "Sucrose and Idiopathic Renal Stone, "NUTRITION HEALTH, 5 No. 1 & 2 (1987):9-17.

89. Lechin, F., et al. "Effects of an Oral Glucose Load on Plasma Neurotransmitters in Humans." Neurophychobiology 26 No.1-2 (1992): 4-11.

90. Fields, M. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION17 No.4 (August, 1998): 317-21.

91. Lenders, C. M."Gestational Age and Infant Size at Birth Are Associated with Dietary Sugar Intake among Pregnant Adolescents, “JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, 127 No.6 (June1997):1113-7 .

92. De Stefani, E."Dietary Sugar and Lung Cancer: a Case-control Study in Uruguay," NUTRITION AND CANCER 31 No.2 (1998):132-7.

93. Sandler, Benjamin P. M.D., DIET PREVENTS POLIO. The Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, Milwakuee, WI, 1951.

94. Murphy, Patricia, "The Role of Sugar in Epileptic Seizures," TOWNSEND LETTER FOR DOCTORS AND PATIENTS, May, 2001, Murphy is Editor of Epilepsy Wellness Newsletter.

 

Comprehensive Glycemic Index

 

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